Help & Advice

​The risks 


Of course not! The risks are to be understood as similar to those of everyday life.
The better you know them, the better you are protected!​



Phishing is a technique used by fraudsters to obtain personal information with the goal of identity theft. The technique consists of leading the victim to believe that he is talking to a trusted third party — bank, government office, etc. — in order to extract personal information: password, credit card number, date of birth, etc. It is a form of computer attack based on social engineering (information security). Phishing can be done by email, by falsified websites or other electronic means.


A “mule" is the name given to a person used to transport illicit materials: explosives, weapons, drugs, sometimes without their knowledge. On the internet, mules are “recruited" by email to “carry money" in return for remuneration. To recruit him, the hacker abuses a web user who makes himself complicit in a fraud (theft, embezzlement or money laundering) and liable to prosecution.


Pharming is a computer hacking technique that exploits DNS vulnerabilities. This technique consists of diverting access to a website towards a pirate site. The URL is correct, but the web user is on a false site. Confidential information entered is captured by the hacker.


Spam, or junk mail, is unsolicited electronic communication, primarily by email. It is generally sent in large quantities for advertising purposes. Phishing and hoaxes partly use this technique.

Scames and hoaxes

Like spam, a scam is an email that you never asked to receive and that generally offers quick and easy money (lottery, grants, etc.) or which solicits your compassion. In some cases, the scam may consist of making you a mule. But beware, you become an accomplice of the pirate and his embezzlements, and you are taking a huge risk. Hoaxes are often in the form of an email or a simple chain letter. In the latter case, the internet has just amplified a phenomenon that already existed through traditional mail. Unlike spam, which are mostly sent automatically to a list of recipients, hoaxes are relayed manually by people in good faith who are asked to send the message to all their connections, or to a specific email address.


A computer virus is malicious software designed to propagate to other computers by inserting itself into legitimate programs called “hosts". It can more or less severely disrupt the operation of the infected computer. It can be spread through any means of exchanging digital data such as computer networks and CD-ROMs, USB keys, etc.


Spyware is malicious software that installs itself in a computer with the aim of collecting and transferring information about the environment in which it is installed, very often without the user being aware of it. The development of this type of software is associated with that of the internet, which serves as a means of data transmission.


A Trojan Horse is software that appears legitimate but is designed to surreptitiously perform hidden actions without the user's knowledge. In general, a Trojan Horse attempts to use the rights belonging to its environment to divert, disseminate or destroy information, or to open a backdoor that lets an attacker remotely control the computer. Windows Live Messenger, downloading free programs and sharing programs or other files are the main sources of disseminating Trojan Horses. They are also very frequent in some types of email.

Transmitted information

When using the services of a website, information that is often personal is transmitted (email, first and last name, identifier, password, credit card number, etc.). To be sure of communicating securely with your bank website or for online purchases, some precautions and checks are required. See our section on “Good Practices".​

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